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Bornholm disease is a viral infection of the intercostal muscles.......

Bornholm disease::

Bornholm disease is a viral infection of the intercostal muscles, which are in the chest wall and join the ribs together. The lining of the lungs, the pleura, may also be affected.
The disease is named after the Danish island where the first documented cases arose. Bornholm disease is also known as epidemic pleurodynia, and devil's grip.

The infection is often caused by one of the group B coxsackie viruses, or group A coxsackie viruses and echoviruses.

The viruses are present in the faeces of infected individuals. They're spread through the faecal-oral route - entering the mouth on fingers that have touched contaminated items, such as nappies, toys, toilets, or haven't been washed properly. The viruses can also be spread through saliva and nasal secretions.

The sudden onset of fever and pain occurs about four days after infection. Flu-like symptoms may be experienced during this incubation period.

There is pain in the chest or upper abdomen, usually on one side. It varies in intensity, but is often described as stabbing, or 'grip-like'. The pain is spasmodic, lasting for 15 to 30 minutes at a time. Coughing, sneezing and sudden movements can make it worse.

The symptoms usually last about one to two days in children and about two to six days in adults. Sometimes, the pain and fever return after a day or two.

On rare occasions, there are several recurrences of pain and fever over a period of three weeks or more.

Complications are rare, but include inflammation of the testes (orchitis) or the heart (pericarditis, myocarditis), and meningitis.


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